The article examines the implications of marijuana use on perioperative care, assessing the influence of cannabis on patients during anesthesia and surgery. It provides a comprehensive overview of the chemical compounds in cannabis, its pharmacological properties, physiological effects, acute and chronic implications of use, withdrawal symptoms, and considerations for different phases of medical care. Marijuana, derived from the Cannabis genus, contains numerous cannabinoids with various psychoactive properties, causing effects on the cardiovascular, pulmonary, central nervous, and gastrointestinal systems. The article notes the difficulties in predicting cannabinoid concentrations due to variations in plant matter and differences in THC potency, as well as challenges in evaluating physiological changes, given the multiple compounds involved. It underlines the need for clinicians to ask detailed questions about a patient’s marijuana use during the preoperative stage to assess potential risks of acute intoxication, tolerance, or withdrawal. The article also highlights the elevated risk of myocardial infarction and emphasizes the need for considering airway hyperreactivity and psychomotor effects in cannabis users during the perioperative period. Additionally, it suggests that while cannabis users might experience heightened pain perception and increased need for analgesics, further research and clinical studies are required to comprehensively understand the anesthetic implications of cannabis products throughout the perioperative phases.
This article stresses the limitations and challenges in studying cannabis-related implications in perioperative care due to the variability of compounds in cannabis, restrictions on research, and the dearth of specific studies addressing these concerns. It recommends careful patient evaluation and emphasizes the need for further research to enhance our understanding of the effects of marijuana on anesthesia and surgical procedures in patients using cannabis products.